How do solar panels work?

Solar panels are one of the most common forms of renewable technology - they work by converting the sun’s energy into electricity. This is done using some very clever little bits of technology called photovoltaic cells.

The photovoltaic cells are sandwiched between semi-conducting materials – normally silicon but it can also be glass or polymer resin – with different electronic properties to create an electric field.

When photons - or sunlight, as it's more commonly known - hit the solar panels, the semi-conducting materials energise. This is known as the photoelectric effect and it’s this that creates the current needed to produce electricity.

Introduction to Rooftop Solar

A rooftop solar or rooftop PV system is an electricity generating system mounted on the rooftop of a house or building. The major components of the system are:

  1. Solar Panels
  2. Solar Inverter
  3. Panel Mounting Structure
  4. Electrical Cables
  5. Array Junction Boxes
  6. AC Distribution Box
  7. DC Combiner Box
  8. Lightening Arrestor

With Grid Connected Rooftop System, there are two situations

  1. Generation is less than the load. In this situation, the Grid supplies power to the load (imported).
  2. Generation is more than the load. In this situation, the surplus power is exported to the Grid and credited
In both situations, the Net Meter records the Imported Grid Power and Exported Solar Power.

On Grid Solar PV System

Solar On-Grid rooftop System

Solar Rooftop PV(Photo Voltaic) system using On-grid is also termed as a Grid-tied system or Utility interactive or Grid back feeding or Grid intertie system. In this kind of sytem, the Solar is connected with utility grid ( typically the power lines) along with the loads and batteries if any are present. In pure on-grid solar PV system, batteries are not connected.

Solar PV system generation

In general solar peak, generation is between 10:00 AM to 2:00 PM. But, based on the type of system installed, surroundings, and all other design specifications taken care, generation can be anywhere between 7:00 AM till 5:00 PM too.

Working of pure On-Grid Solar PV Sytems

In pure on grid solar PV system batteries are absent. Once the Solar generation starts all the generated energy tries to compensate the existing loads. Once all the loads are satisfied excess generation will be going to the grid. Grid by itself acts as a virtual battery taking in all the excess energy exported. When there is a shortage(or even when there is zero generation) in energy generation from the Solar rooftop for all the available loads excess required energy is imported from the grid. By end of every month based on total export and import billing will be done. This net will be calculated with the help of a Bi-directional meter.

Working of a Bi-directional meter

Our rooftop solar project process consists of the following steps:

Feasibility: Our engineers visit your home to do a thorough site survey and suggest the right place for panels placement on the rooftop for optimal generation. They will assess your energy demands based on previous electricity bills and help you evaluate your energy savings options. Shadow analysis is the key during the site survey.

1. Design and Engineering: After our site engineers submit their site analysis report, our solar design experts will prepare a design document and energy generation report, with details about the panels layout, inverter location, routing of cables, selection of panels and inverter, number of resources required, number of days required for installation, approximate production of units per year, etc.
2. Approvals: Once you approve of our proposal, we work on required paperwork to be submitted to the departments for approvals. You do not have to run errands; we will take care of approvals.
3. Procurement and Installation: After we get approvals, we start procuring material and thereafter begin installation work. Our experienced installation team, in consultation with our design and engineering teams, installs and commissions the project successfully.
4. Inspection and Commissioning: The electricity department will inspect the site to ensure that all standards are followed before officially allowing the connection of the solar system to the grid. During this stage, Net Meter is installed, and project is considered “commissioned.”

Rooftop Solar Project Process

At Venus Solar, we pride ourselves on associating with the very best solar panel manufacturers, world’s leading solar inverter companies and quality-conscious panel-mounting- structure fabricators to deliver faster and effective EPC services.